Although clinical syndromes consistent with rhabdomyolysis were recognized in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the modern history of the crush syndrome begins with Bywaters' and Beal's classic description of the entrapped bombing victims of London during World War II [
- Fleisher R.
Ueber eine form von Haemoglbinuric bein Menschen.
Berl Klin Wochenschr. 1881; 18: 691
- Meyer-Betz F.
Beobachtungen an einem Eigentartigen mit Muskellahmungen ver bunden fall van Haemoglobinuric.
Dtsch Arch Klin Med. 1911; 101: 85
- Bywaters E.
- Beall D.
Crush injuries with impairment of renal function.
BMJ. 1941; 1: 427-432
4]. They reported five cases of crush injury, in which victims had one or more of their extremities trapped under debris for prolonged periods of time. All five patients presented in shock, had swollen extremities, developed dark urine, progressed to renal failure, and eventually died. Histologic examination of the kidney revealed tubular necrosis and pigmented casts. In 1944, Bywaters and Stead identified myoglobin as the urinary pigment and proposed its role in the development of renal failure [
- Beall D.
- Bywaters E.
- Belsey R.
- Miles J.
A case of crush injury with renal failure.
BMJ. 1941; 1: 432-434
- Bywaters E.
- Stead J.
The production of renal failure following injection of solutions containing myohaemoglobin.
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology. 1944; 33: 53
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