Review Article| Volume 26, ISSUE 2, P383-392, April 2010

Noninvasive Monitoring Cardiac Output Using Partial CO2 Rebreathing


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Critical Care Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • de Waal E.E.
        • Wappler F.
        • Buhre W.F.
        Cardiac output monitoring.
        Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2009; 22: 71-77
        • Venn R.
        • Steele A.
        • Richardson P.
        • et al.
        Randomized controlled trial to investigate influence of the fluid challenge on duration of hospital stay and perioperative morbidity in patients with hip fractures.
        Br J Anaesth. 2002; 88: 65-71
        • Swan H.
        • Ganz W.
        • Forrester J.
        • et al.
        Catheterization of the heart in man with use of a flow-directed balloon-tipped catheter.
        N Engl J Med. 1970; 283: 447-451
        • Harvey S.
        • Harrison D.A.
        • Singer M.
        • et al.
        Assessment of the clinical effectiveness of pulmonary artery catheters in management of patients in intensive care (PACMan): a randomized controlled trial.
        Lancet. 2005; 366: 472-477
        • Hofer C.K.
        • Ganter M.T.
        • Zollinger A.
        What technique should I use to measure cardiac output?.
        Curr Opin Crit Care. 2007; 13: 308-317
        • Cholley B.P.
        • Payen D.
        Noninvasive techniques for measurements of cardiac output.
        Curr Opin Crit Care. 2005; 11: 424-429
        • Chaney J.C.
        • Derdak S.
        Minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring for the intensivist: current and emerging technology.
        Crit Care Med. 2002; 30: 2338-2345
        • de Abreu M.G.
        • Quintel M.
        • Ragaller M.
        • et al.
        Partial carbon dioxide rebreathing: a reliable technique for noninvasive measurement of nonshunted pulmonary capillary blood flow.
        Crit Care Med. 1997; 25: 675-683
        • de Abreu M.G.
        • Geiger S.
        • Winkler T.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of a new device for noninvasive measurement of nonshunted pulmonary capillary blood flow in patients with acute lung injury.
        Intensive Care Med. 2002; 289: 318-323
        • Heigenhauser G.J.
        • Jones N.L.
        Measurement of cardiac output by carbon dioxide rebreathing methods.
        Clin Chest Med. 1989; 10: 255-264
        • Jaffe M.B.
        Partial CO2 rebreathing cardiac output—operating principles of the NICO system.
        J Clin Monit Comput. 1999; 15: 387-401
        • Kotake Y.
        • Yamada T.
        • Nagata H.
        • et al.
        Improved accuracy of cardiac output estimation by the partial CO2 rebreathing method.
        J Clin Monit Comput. 2009; 23: 149-155
        • van Heerden P.V.
        • Baker S.
        • Lim S.I.
        • et al.
        Clinical evaluation of the non-invasive cardiac output (NICO) monitor in the intensive care unit.
        Anaesth Intensive Care. 2000; 28: 427-430
        • Nilsson L.B.
        • Eldrup N.
        • Berthelsen P.G.
        Lack of agreement between thermodilution and carbon dioxide-rebreathing cardiac output.
        Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2001; 45: 680-685
        • Maxwell R.A.
        • Gibson J.B.
        • Slade J.B.
        • et al.
        Noninvasive cardiac output by partial CO2 rebreathing after severe chest trauma.
        J Trauma. 2001; 51: 849-853
        • Jover J.L.
        • Soro M.
        • Belda F.J.
        • et al.
        Measurement of cardiac output after cardiac surgery: validation fo a partial carbon dioxide rebreathing (NICO) system in comparison with continous thermodilution with a pulmonary artery catheter.
        Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2005; 52 ([in Spanish]): 256-262
        • Kimura C.
        • Kunimoto F.
        • Morishita Y.
        Cardiac output measurement using the non-invasive cardiac output (NICO) monitor: a comparative study with the standard thermodilution technique.
        Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004; 33: 6-8
        • Odenstedt H.
        • Stenqvist O.
        • Lundin S.
        Clinical evaluation of a partial CO2 rebreathing technique for cardiac output monitoring in critically ill patients.
        Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2002; 46: 152-159
        • Suzuki M.
        • Koda S.
        • Nakamura Y.
        • et al.
        The relationship between cardiac output measured by the thermodilution method and that measured by the carbon dioxide rebreathing technique during laparoscopic surgery.
        Anesth Analg. 2005; 100: 1381-1383
        • Tachibana K.
        • Imanaka H.
        • Miyano H.
        • et al.
        Effect of Ventilatory settings on accuracy of cardiac output measurement using partial CO2 rebreathing.
        Anesthesiology. 2002; 96: 96-102
        • Neviere R.
        • Mathieu D.
        • Riou Y.
        • et al.
        Carbon dioxide rebreathing method of cardiac output measurement during acute respiratory failure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
        Crit Care Med. 1994; 22: 81-85
        • Botero M.
        • Kirby D.
        • Lobato E.B.
        • et al.
        Measurement of cardiac output before and after cardiopulmonary bypass: comparison among aortic transit-time ultrasound, thermodilution, and noninvasive partial CO2 rebreathing.
        J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2004; 18: 563-572
        • Neuhäuser C.
        • Müller M.
        • Bräu M.
        • et al.
        Partial CO(2) rebreathing technique versus thermodilution: measurement of cardiac output before and after operations with extracorporeal circulation.
        Anaesthesist. 2002; 51 ([in German]): 625-633
        • Crespo A.S.
        • Galhardo C.
        • Silveira C.G.
        • et al.
        Assessment of the agreement between cardiac output measured by thermal filament continuous thermodilution (CCO) and noninvasive partial CO2 rebreathing (NICO) with particular reference to ETCO2 levels.
        Crit Care. 2002; 6: 195
        • Ng J.M.
        • Chow M.Y.
        • Ip-Yam P.C.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of partial carbon dioxide rebreathing cardiac output measurement during thoracic surgery.
        J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2007; 21: 655-658
        • Gueret G.
        • Kiss G.
        • Rossignol B.
        • et al.
        Cardiac output measurements in off-pump coronary surgery: comparison between NICO and the Swan-Ganz catheter.
        Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2006; 23: 848-854
        • Neviere R.
        • Mathieu D.
        • Riou Y.
        • et al.
        Non-invasive measurement of cardiac output in patients with acute lung injury using the carbon dioxide rebreathing method.
        Clin Intensive Care. 1994; 5: 172-175
        • Valiatti J.L.
        • Amaral J.L.
        Comparison between cardiac output values measured by thermodilution and partial carbon dioxide rebreathing in patients with acute lung injury.
        Sao Paulo Med J. 2004; 122: 233-238
        • Gama de Abreu M.
        • Winkler T.
        • Pahlitzsch T.
        • et al.
        Performance of the partial CO2 rebreathing technique under different hemodynamic and ventilation/perfusion matching conditions.
        Crit Care Med. 2003; 31: 543-551
        • Rocco M.
        • Spadetta G.
        • Morelli A.
        • et al.
        A comparative evaluation of thermodilution and partial CO2 rebreathing techniques for cardiac output asessment in critically ill patients during assisted ventilation.
        Intensive Care Med. 2004; 30: 82-87
        • Levy R.J.
        • Chiavacci R.M.
        • Nicolson S.C.
        • et al.
        An evaluation of a noninvasive cardiac output measurement using partial carbon dioxide rebreathing in children.
        Anesth Analg. 2004; 99: 1642-1647
        • Botte A.
        • Leclerc F.
        • Riou Y.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of noninvasive cardiac output in mechanically ventilated children.
        Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2006; 7: 231-236
        • Yoshie K.
        Comparison of three kinds of less invasive cardiac output measuring systems in aged patients.
        Masui. 2008; 57 ([in Japanese]): 1485-1493
        • Gueret G.
        • Kiss G.
        • Khaldi S.
        • et al.
        Comparision of cardiac output measurements between NICO and the pulmonary artery catherter during repeat surgery for total hip replacement.
        Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2007; 24: 1028-1033
        • de la Torre A.N.
        • Fisher A.
        • Wilson D.J.
        • et al.
        Minimally invasive optimization of organ donor resuscitation: case reports.
        Prog Transplant. 2005; 15: 27-32
        • Haryadi D.G.
        • Orr J.A.
        • Kuck K.
        • et al.
        Partial CO2 rebreathing indirect Fick technique for non-invasive measurement of cardiac output.
        J Clin Monit Comput. 2000; 16: 361-374