Review Article| Volume 26, ISSUE 2, P295-305, April 2010

Static Measures of Preload Assessment


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Critical Care Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Despopoulos A.
        • Silbernagl S.
        Cardiovascular system.
        in: Color atlas of physiology. 5th edition. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart (Germany)2003: 67-204
        • Scheuren K.
        • Wente M.N.
        • Hainer C.
        • et al.
        Left ventricular end-diastolic area is a measure of cardiac preload in patients with early septic shock.
        Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009; 26: 759-765
        • Benington S.
        • Ferris P.
        • Nirmalan M.
        Emerging trends in minimally invasive haemodynamic monitoring and optimization of fluid therapy.
        Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009; 26: 893-905
        • Magder S.
        Clinical usefulness of respiratory variations in arterial pressure.
        Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004; 169: 151-155
        • Boldt J.
        • Lenz M.
        • Kumle B.
        • et al.
        Volume replacement strategies on intensive care units: results from a postal survey.
        Intensive Care Med. 1998; 24: 147-151
        • Magder S.
        More respect for the CVP.
        Intensive Care Med. 1998; 24: 651-653
        • Dellinger R.P.
        • Levy M.M.
        • Carlet J.M.
        • et al.
        Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008.
        Crit Care Med. 2008; 36 ([published correction appears in Crit Care Med 2008; 36:1394–96]): 296-327
        • Magder S.
        Central venous pressure monitoring.
        Curr Opin Crit Care. 2006; 12: 219-227
        • Marino P.L.
        The ICU book.
        in: The ICU book. 3rd edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia2007 (p. 181, 183)
        • Bates B.
        • Hoekelman R.A.
        • Thompson J.E.
        A guide to physical examination and history taking.
        in: A guide to physical examination and history taking. 5th edition. J.B. Lippincott, Philadelphia1991: 286-287
        • Magder S.
        Central venous pressure: a useful but not so simple measurement.
        Crit Care Med. 2006; 34: 2224-2227
        • McGee S.R.
        Physical examination of venous pressure: a critical review.
        Am Heart J. 1998; 136: 10-18
        • Haywood G.A.
        • Joy M.D.
        • Camm A.J.
        Influence of posture and reference point on central venous pressure measurement.
        BMJ. 1991; 303: 626-627
        • Figg K.K.
        • Nemergut E.C.
        Error in central venous pressure measurement.
        Anesth Analg. 2009; 108: 1209-1211
        • Bellemare P.
        • Goldberg P.
        • Magder S.A.
        Variations in pulmonary artery occlusion pressure to estimate changes in pleural pressure.
        Intensive Care Med. 2007; 33: 2004-2008
        • Magder S.
        How to use central venous pressure measurements.
        Curr Opin Crit Care. 2005; 11: 264-270
        • Malbrain M.L.
        • Wilmer A.
        The polycompartment syndrome: towards an understanding of the interactions between different compartments.
        Intensive Care Med. 2007; 33: 1869-1872
        • Qureshi A.S.
        • Shapiro R.S.
        • Leatherman J.W.
        Use of bladder pressure to correct for the effect of expiratory muscle activity on central venous pressure.
        Intensive Care Med. 2007; 33: 1907-1912
        • Komadina K.H.
        • Schenk D.A.
        • LaVeau P.
        • et al.
        Interobserver variability in the interpretation of pulmonary artery catheter pressure tracings.
        Chest. 1991; 100: 1647-1654
        • Holcroft J.W.
        • Anderson J.T.
        Cardiovascular monitoring.
        in: Souba W.W. Fink M.P. Jurkovich G.J. ACS surgery: principles and practice. 6th edition. WebMD, New York2007: 1502-1515
      1. Mark JB. Getting the most from a CVP catheter. In: 52nd Annual Refresher Course Lectures, Clinical updates and basic science reviews of the American Society of Anesthesiologists 2001;231:1–7.

        • Magder S.
        • Erice F.
        • Lagonidis D.
        Determinants of the ‘y’ descent and its usefulness as a predictor of ventricular filling.
        J Intensive Care Med. 2000; 15: 262-269
        • Wagner J.G.
        • Leatherman J.W.
        Right ventricular end-diastolic volume as a predictor of the hemodynamic response to a fluid challenge.
        Chest. 1998; 113: 1048-1054
      2. Mark JB. CVP and PAC Monitoring. In: 58th Annual Refresher Course Lectures, clinical updates and basic science reviews of the American Society of Anesthesiologists 2007;102:1–6.

        • Pinsky M.R.
        • Vincent J.L.
        • DeSmet J.M.
        Estimating left ventricular filling pressure during positive end expiratory pressure in humans.
        Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991; 143: 25-31
        • Teboul J.L.
        • Pinsky M.R.
        • Mercat A.
        • et al.
        Estimating cardiac filling pressure in mechanically ventilated patients with hyperinflation.
        Crit Care Med. 2000; 28: 3631-3636
        • Teboul J.L.
        • Besbes M.
        • Andrivet P.
        • et al.
        A bedside index assessing the reliability of PA occlusion pressure measurments during mechanical ventilation with PEEP.
        J Crit Care. 1992; 7: 22-29
        • Pinsky M.R.
        Hemodynamic monitoring in the intensive care unit.
        Clin Chest Med. 2003; 24: 549-560
        • Magder S.
        • Bafaqeeh F.
        The clinical role of central venous pressure measurements.
        J Intensive Care Med. 2007; 22: 44-51
        • Jellinek H.
        • Krafft P.
        • Fitzgerald R.D.
        • et al.
        Right atrial pressure predicts hemodynamic response to apneic positive airway pressure.
        Crit Care Med. 2000; 28: 672-678
        • Marik E.
        • Baram M.
        • Vahid B.
        Does central venous pressure predict fluid responsiveness?.
        Chest. 2008; 134: 172-178
        • Michard F.
        • Teboul J.
        Predicting fluid responsiveness in ICU patients.
        Chest. 2002; 121: 2000-2008
        • Diebel L.N.
        • Wilson R.F.
        • Tagett M.G.
        • et al.
        End-diastolic volume: a better indicator of preload in the critically ill.
        Arch Surg. 1992; 127: 817-822
        • Tousignant C.P.
        • Walsh F.
        • Mazer C.D.
        The use of transesophageal echocardiography for preload assessment in critically ill patients.
        Anesth Analg. 2000; 90: 351-355
        • Osman D.
        • Ridel C.
        • Patrick R.
        • et al.
        Cardiac filling pressures are not appropriate to predict hemodynamic response to volume challenge.
        Crit Care Med. 2007; 35: 64-68
        • Kumar A.
        • Anel R.
        • Bunnell E.
        • et al.
        Pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and central venous pressure fail to predict ventricular filling volume, cardiac performance, or the response to volume infusion in normal subjects.
        Crit Care Med. 2004; 32: 691-699
        • Pinsky M.R.
        Clinical significance of pulmonary artery occlusion pressure.
        Intensive Care Med. 2003; 29: 175-178
        • Bing R.
        • Heimbecker R.
        • Falholt W.
        An estimation of residual volume blood in the right ventricle of normal and diseased human hearts in vivo.
        Am Heart J. 1951; 42: 483-502
        • Boldt J.
        Right ventricular end-diastolic volume.
        in: Pinsky M.R. Payden D. Functional hemodynamic monitoring. Springer-Verlag, New York2005: 269-281
        • Diebel L.N.
        • Wilson R.F.
        • Heins J.
        • et al.
        End-diastolic volume versus pulmonary artery wedge pressure in evaluating cardiac preload in trauma patients.
        J Trauma. 1994; 37: 950-955
        • Durham R.
        • Neunaber K.
        • Vogler G.
        • et al.
        Right ventricular end-diastolic volume as a measure of preload.
        J Trauma. 1995; 39: 218-223
        • Cheatham M.L.
        • Nelson L.D.
        • Chang M.C.
        • et al.
        Right ventricular end-diastolic volume index as a predictor of preload status in patients on positive end-expiratory pressure.
        Crit Care Med. 1998; 26: 1801-1806
        • Wiesenack C.
        • Fiegl C.
        • Keyser A.
        • et al.
        Continuously assessed right ventricular end-diastolic volume as a marker of cardiac preload and fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated cardiac surgical patients.
        Crit Care. 2005; 9: R226-R233
        • Della Rocca G.
        • Costa M.G.
        • Feltracco P.
        • et al.
        Continuous right ventricular end diastolic volume and right ventricular ejection fraction during liver transplantation: a multicentre study.
        Liver Transpl. 2008; 14: 327-332
        • Della Rocca G.
        • Costa M.G.
        • Coccia C.
        • et al.
        Continuous right ventricular end-diastolic volume in comparison with left ventricular end-diastolic area.
        Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009; 26: 272-278
        • Marik P.E.
        Techniques for assessment of intravascular volume in critically ill patients.
        J Intensive Care Med. 2009; 24: 329-337
        • Della Rocca G.
        • Costa M.G.
        • Pietropaoli P.
        How to measure and interpret volumetric measures of preload.
        Curr Opin Crit Care. 2007; 13: 297-302
        • Michard F.
        • Alaya S.
        • Zarka V.
        • et al.
        Global end-diastolic volume as an indicator of cardiac preload in patients with septic shock.
        Chest. 2003; 124: 1900-1908
        • Hofer C.K.
        • Furrer L.
        • Matter-Ensner S.
        • et al.
        Volumetric preload measurement by thermodilution: a comparison with transoesophageal echocardiography.
        Br J Anaesth. 2005; 94: 748-755
        • De Hert S.G.
        Perioperative assessment of volume status: measurement of preload is not measurement of preload responsiveness.
        Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009; 26: 269-271