Review Article| Volume 26, ISSUE 2, P355-364, April 2010

Techniques for Determining Cardiac Output in the Intensive Care Unit


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Critical Care Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Butman S.M.
        • Ewy G.A.
        • Standen J.R.
        • et al.
        Bedside cardiovascular examination in patients with severe chronic heart failure: importance of rest or inducible jugular venous distension.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993; 22: 968-974
        • Garg N.
        • Garg N.
        Jugular venous pulse: an appraisal.
        J Indian Acad Clin Med. 2000; 1: 260-269
        • Cook L.B.
        • Morgan M.
        Pulmonary artery catheterisation.
        Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1994; 23: 519-530
        • Guyatt G.
        A randomized control trial of right-heart catheterizationin critically ill patients. Ontario Intensive Care Study Group.
        J Intensive Care Med. 1991; 6: 91-95
        • Hayes M.A.
        • Timmins A.C.
        • Yau E.H.
        • et al.
        Elevation of systemic oxygen delivery in the treatment of critically ill patients.
        N Engl J Med. 1994; 330: 1717-1722
        • Dalen J.E.
        • Bone R.C.
        Is it time to pull the pulmonary artery catheter?.
        JAMA. 1996; 276: 916-918
        • Vernon C.
        • Phillips C.R.
        Pulmonary artery catheters in acute heart failure: end of an era?.
        Crit Care. 2009; 13: 1003
        • Shure D.
        Pulmonary artery catheters—peace at last?.
        N Engl J Med. 2006; 354: 2273-2274
        • Sakka S.G.
        • Rühl C.C.
        • Pfeiffer U.J.
        • et al.
        Assessment of cardiac preload and extravascular lung water by single transpulmonary thermodilution.
        Intensive Care Med. 2000; 26: 180-187
        • Goedje O.
        • Hoeke K.
        • Lichtwarck-Aschoff M.
        • et al.
        Continuous cardiac output by femoral arterial thermodilution calibrated pulse contour analysis: comparison with pulmonary arterial thermodilution.
        Crit Care Med. 1999; 27: 2407-2412
        • Linton R.A.
        • Jonas M.M.
        • Tibby S.M.
        • et al.
        Cardiac output measured by lithium dilution and transpulmonary thermodilution in patients in a paediatric intensive care unit.
        Intensive Care Med. 2000; 26: 1507-1511
        • Wesseling K.H.
        • Dewitt B.
        • Weber A.P.
        A simple device for the continuous measurement of cardiac output.
        Adv Cardiovasc Phys. 1983; 5: 1-52
        • Buhre W.
        • Weyland A.
        • Kazmaier S.
        • et al.
        Comparison of cardiac output assessed by pulse-contour analysis and thermodilution in patients undergoing minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting.
        J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1999; 13: 437-440
        • Zollner C.
        • Haller M.
        • Weis M.
        • et al.
        Beat-to-beat measurement of cardiac output by intravascular pulse contour analysis: a prospective criterion standard study in patients after cardiac surgery.
        J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2000; 14: 125-129
        • Hamzaoui O.
        • Monnet X.
        • Richard C.
        • et al.
        Effects of changes in vascular tone on the agreement between pulse contour and transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac output measurements within an up to 6-hour calibration-free period.
        Crit Care Med. 2008; 36: 434-440
        • van Lieshout J.J.
        • Wesseling K.H.
        Continuous cardiac output by pulse contour analysis?.
        Br J Anaesth. 2001; 86: 467-469
        • Marik P.E.
        • Baram M.
        Noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring in the intensive care unit.
        Crit Care Clin. 2007; 23: 383-400
        • Pestaña D.
        • García de Lorenzo A.
        • Madero R.
        Relationship between mixed venous saturation and cardiac index, hemoglobin and oxygen consumption in aortic surgery.
        Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1998; 45: 136-140
        • Nuñez S.
        • Maisel A.
        Comparison between mixed venous oxygen saturation and thermodilution cardiac output in monitoring patients with severe heart failure treated with milrinone and dobutamine.
        Am Heart J. 1998; 135: 383-388
        • Kubicek W.G.
        • Karnegis J.N.
        • Patterson R.P.
        • et al.
        Development and evaluation of an impedence cardiac output system.
        Aerosp Med. 1966; 37: 1208-1212
        • Summers R.L.
        • Shoemaker W.C.
        • Peacock W.F.
        • et al.
        Bench to bedside: electrophysiologic and clinical principles of noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring using impedence cardiography.
        Acad Emerg Med. 2003; 10: 669-680
        • Raaijmakers E.
        • Faes T.J.
        • Scholten R.J.
        • et al.
        A meta-analysis of three decades of validating thoracic impedance cardiography.
        Crit Care Med. 1999; 27: 1203-1213
        • Sageman W.S.
        • Amundson D.E.
        Thoracic electrical bioimpedence measurement of cardiac output in postaortocoronary bypass patients.
        Crit Care Med. 1993; 21: 1139-1142
        • Colombo J.
        • Shoemaker W.C.
        • Belzberg H.
        Noninvasive monitoring of the autonomic nervous system and hemodynamics of patients with blunt and penetrating trauma.
        J Trauma. 2008; 65: 1364-1373
        • Raval N.Y.
        • Squara P.
        • Cleman M.
        • et al.
        Multicenter evaluation of noninvasive cardiac output measurement by bioreactance technique.
        J Clin Monit Comput. 2008; 22: 113-119
        • Squara P.
        • Denjean D.
        • Estagnasie P.
        • et al.
        Noninvasive cardiac output monitoring (NICOM): a clinical validation.
        Intensive Care Med. 2007; 33: 1191-1194
        • Hicks C.
        Hemodynamic changes in patients with sepsis.
        Acad Emerg Med. 2009; 16: 397
        • Marqué S.
        • Cariou A.
        • Chiche JD.
        • et al.
        Comparison between Flotrac-Vigileo and Bioreactance, a totally noninvasive method for cardiac output monitoring.
        Crit Care. 2009; 13: R73
        • Valtier B.
        • Cholley B.P.
        • Belot JP.
        • et al.
        Noninvasive monitoring of cardiac output in critically ill patients using transesophageal Doppler.
        Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998; 158: 77-83
        • Katz W.E.
        • Gasior T.A.
        • Quinlan J.J.
        • et al.
        Transgastric continuous-wave Doppler to determine cardiac output.
        Am J Cardiol. 1993; 71: 853-857
        • Thom O.
        • Taylor D.M.
        • Wolfe R.E.
        • et al.
        Comparison of a suprasternal cardiac output monitor (USCOM) with the pulmonary artery catheter.
        Br J Anaesth. 2009; 103: 800-804